City of Baikonur
The city of Baikonur is the administrative and socio-cultural center of the Baikonur complex. The city's education day is celebrated on June 1. Historical names: the village "Zarya" (unofficial), the settlement "Leninsky" (1958), the city of Leninsk (1966), the city of Baikonur (1995). The settlement, and then the city was formed simultaneously with the construction of the test site. At present, the federal subordination institutions, state enterprises and institutions, law enforcement structures of Russia and Kazakhstan, the Special Ministry of the Russian Federation, the Inspectorate of the Federal Tax Service of Russia, the FIU branch, the health system structures under the jurisdiction of FMBA of Russia, the branch "Voskhod" of the MAI and representatives 3 universities, branches of Russian and Kazakh banks, more than 700 trade enterprises, public catering and consumer services.
The climate is sharply continental, with a low amount of precipitation (120 mm per year), a large number of sunny days; summer is long and hot, winter is frosty and windy (snow cover is not high).
Winter (mid-November to mid-March) with variable clouds and frequent fogs. The average air temperature during daytime is -5 ... -10 ° C, at night to -20 ... -25 ° C (-38 ° C minimum). Steady frosts begin in December. In any month of winter, short-term (1-2 days) thaws are possible with an increase in the daytime air temperature to + 10 ... + 18 ° C.
Spring (mid March - April) is warm with unstable weather in the first half. The air temperature at the beginning of the season during the day -1 ... -10 ° C, at night to -10 ° C; at the end of the season in the daytime up to + 25 ° C, at night from -1 ° C to +8 ° C. Precipitation falls in the form of short rains, sometimes with snow.
Summer (late April - mid September) is characterized by a stable hot dry and cloudy weather. The air temperature during the day is + 30 ... + 40 ° C (maximum +45 ° C), at night the temperature drops to +18 ... + 25 ° C. In summer, there are often dry winds and dust storms, which raise sand and dust into the air.
Autumn (mid September - mid November) - in the first half dry and warm, in the second cloudy and cool. The air temperature during the day is + 5 ... + 25 ° C, at night -5 ... + 5 ° C. Precipitation falls in the form of drizzling rain; in the second half of November, sleet falls.
Winds in spring and summer are mainly western and north-western, in autumn and winter, eastern and northeastern. The prevailing wind speed is 3-7 m / s. During the whole year (especially in the winter and spring period), strong storm winds are often observed at a speed of 15 m / s or more (45 days per year)
The Baikonur cosmodrome was created and for a long time remained a secret regime facility of the USSR Ministry of Defense. Original names: "Tashkent 90", "Kzyl-Orda 50". June 2, 1955 The General Staff of the Soviet Army approved the organizational-staff structure of the test range (NIIP-5 of the USSR Defense Ministry), designed to conduct tests of rocket and space technology. May 15, 1957 - the first launch of the intercontinental ballistic missile R-7. On October 4, 1957, the R-7 rocket launched the first artificial satellite into Earth's orbit. April 12, 1961 - the launch of the manned spacecraft "Vostok" into space with the first cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. On the same date, the Space Banner was handed over the Battle Flag. The Cosmodrome was awarded the Order of the Red Star, the Order of Lenin, the Order of the October Revolution.
On the experimental base of the cosmodrome, more than 40 types of missiles, which have become the main strategic military power of the country, have been tested, about 20 types of space launch vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the cosmodrome has been a full participant in international space programs "Soyuz-Appolon", "Intercosmos", a partner in the creation and development of the ISS. More than 200 cosmonauts and astronauts, including those working for the ISS, have started from the Pukkovo installations of Baikonur.
- Total area - 7000 square meters. km
- 2 SKs are in operation for launching heavy-duty LV "Proton", launching complex for a Zenit medium-range missile, 2 SS for launching Soyuz missiles, and silo launchers
- 7 assembly and testing buildings are in operation
- There are 2 refueling and neutralization stations for refueling spacecraft and the Republic of Belarus with components of rocket fuels and compressed gases
- Oxygen-nitrogen plant
- The work of the cosmodrome sites and access to them is ensured by: a communication system of 500 km of railways more than 1,000 km. highways more than 6 thousand km of power lines SC - launch complex LV - booster rocket spacecraft - space vehicle RB - upper stage